Study Finds Pre-Vaccination Expectations Linked to Adverse Events in COVID-19 Vaccination, Highlights Importance of Contextualizing Vaccine Information and Treatment with Nirmatrelvir in Acute Phase
A recent study published in JAMA Network Open explored the relationship between pre-vaccination expectations and systemic adverse events among individuals receiving their second dose of a COVID-19 vaccine. The study found that expectations of low benefit, high adverse effects, and prior negative experiences were associated with COVID-19 vaccination adverse effects. Additionally, the tendency to catastrophize instead of normalize benign bodily sensations was also linked to higher reported adverse events. The authors of the study suggest that these insights could be beneficial for clinician-patient interactions and public vaccine campaigns by optimizing and contextualizing information provided about COVID-19 vaccines.
One significant contributor to vaccine hesitancy has been concerns about adverse events. The study concluded that the severity and frequency of systemic adverse events in the week after COVID-19 vaccination “was not only caused by vaccine-specific reactogenicity but also by psychosocial context factors that can be identified prior to vaccination.” The three major contributors to nocebo effects included personal prior reactions to the first COVID-19 vaccination, individual expectations regarding potential harms and benefits of vaccination, and symptom misattribution.
The study also found that having excellent knowledge about the COVID-19 vaccine was significantly associated with a positive practice of vaccinating children between ages 12 and 18 years with the COVID-19 vaccine. The researchers noted that clinicians and public vaccine campaigns could benefit from contextualizing information about COVID-19 vaccines and being transparent about their risk-benefit profiles to improve overall vaccine acceptance.
The efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines in curbing infection, morbidity, and mortality, including against the latest COVID-19 strains, is well-established. However, their effectiveness hinges on a substantial portion of the population receiving vaccination. A recent study reported that vaccination has reduced the risk of developing long COVID-19 symptoms caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus.
The study also explored the response to vaccination of recovered COVID-19 patients and found that their SARS-CoV-2-specific response to vaccination lagged behind that of never-infected participants’ response. The study found that uninfected vaccine recipients experienced a greater than 60-fold rise in their levels of SARS-CoV-2-targeting killer T cells.
Another study published in JAMA Internal Medicine found that treatment with nirmatrelvir during the acute phase of COVID-19 may reduce the risk for post-acute adverse health outcomes. The study included 35,717 veterans who had a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 positive test result between Jan. 3, 2022, and Dec. 31, 2022, with at least one risk factor for severe COVID-19 who were treated with oral nirmatrelvir within five days after the positive test.
In conclusion, the study highlights the importance of contextualizing information about COVID-19 vaccines and being transparent about their risk-benefit profiles to improve overall vaccine acceptance. Additionally, the study emphasizes the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines in reducing infection, morbidity, and mortality, even against the newest emerging COVID-19 variants. Finally, the study highlights the potential benefits of treatment with nirmatrelvir during the acute phase of COVID-19 in reducing the risk for post-acute adverse health outcomes.
0. “LinkUP intervention improves COVID-19 testing, vaccination referral rates among PWID” Healio, 27 Mar. 2023, https://www.healio.com/news/infectious-disease/20230327/linkup-intervention-improves-covid19-testing-vaccination-referral-rates-among-pwid
1. “Prior Experiences Shape Expectations of COVID-19 Vaccine Adverse Effects” Mirage News, 27 Mar. 2023, https://www.miragenews.com/prior-experiences-shape-expectations-of-covid-975149/
2. “Negative Expectations of COVID-19 Vaccines Led to More Adverse Events After Vaccination” Contagionlive.com, 28 Mar. 2023, https://www.contagionlive.com/view/negative-expectations-of-covid-19-vaccines-led-to-more-adverse-events-after-vaccination
3. “mRNA vaccine beats infection for key defense against COVID-19, Stanford Medicine scientists find” Stanford Medical Center Report, 28 Mar. 2023, https://med.stanford.edu/news/all-news/2023/03/vaccine-covid-infection.html
4. “Nirmatrelvir Cuts Risk for Post-COVID-19 Condition | Health” Islander News.com, 27 Mar. 2023, https://www.islandernews.com/lifestyle/health/nirmatrelvir-cuts-risk-for-post-covid-19-condition/article_75f0e029-a0ac-5fa7-905a-0b924ffc6cd4.html